Tenses


Simple Present

Present simple digunakan untuk mengatakan sesuatu yang bersifat umum atau suatu peristiwa atau keadaan yang tidak bisa dibantah kebenarannya, dan suatu aktifitas atau perbuatan yang dilakukan berulang-ulang, sudah menjadi kebiasaan atau untuk mengatakan seberapa sering kita melakukan sesuatu.

I / we / you / they + verb

He / She / It + Verbs

Contoh :

(+)  Fabiyan gets up at 5 o’clock every morning

(-)   Fabiyan doesn’t get up at 5 o’clock every morning

(?)  Does Fabiyan get up at 5 o’clock every morning?

(-?) Doesn’t (he) Fabiyan get up at 5 0’clock every morning

Keterangan waktu :

Always, Usually, Generally, Often, sometimes, seldom, never, as a rule, frequently, nowadays, habitually, every … (every morning, every Tuesday etc.) now and then, once in while, occasionally etc.


 

Present Continuous

Di gunakan untuk mengatakan aktifitas yang sedang dilakukan pada saat berbicara atau aktifitas yang dilakukan bersifat sementara.

I + am + v ing

We / you / they + are + V ing

He / She / It + is + V ing

Contoh :

(+)  Fabiyan is studying English now

(-)   Fabiyan is not studying English now

(?)  Is Fabiyan studying English now ?

(-?) Isn’t Fabiyan studying English now

Keterangan waktu :

When, now, right now, at present, at this moment, today, look!, Listen!, still, this holiday, this weekend, etc.


 

Present Perfect

Di pakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan, aktifitas atau kejadian  yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sudah selesai pada saat berbicara tetapi hasilnya masih bisa diingat atau dirasakan.

I / we / you / They have + V3 (past participle)

He / She / It + has + V3 (past participle)

Contoh :

(+)  He has read the email twice

(-)   He has not read the email twice

(?)  Has he read the email twice?

(-?) Hasn’t he read the email twice

Keterangan waktu :

Already, just, yet, as yet, so far, lately, ever, never, once, twice, three times, many times, several times etc.



 

Baca juga :  Reciprocal Pronoun

 

Present Perfect Continuous

Dipakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung hingga sekarang.

I / we / you / they have + been + verb + ing

He / she / it has + been + verb + ing

Contoh :

(+)  He has been reading the email for one hour

(-)   He has not (hasn’t) been reading the email for one hour

(?)  Has he been reading the email for one hour?

(-?) Hasn’t he been reading the email for one hour

Keterangan waktu :

For, for about, since, all the day, a long day, for over a year, since two month ago, etc.

 

 

Simple Past

Digunakan untuk mengatakan aktifitas yang dilakukan di waktu lampau dan sudah selesai atau aktifitas yang menjadi kebiasaan di waktu lampau.

S + V2 (past)

(+)  Fabiyan gots up at 5 o’clock this morning

(-)   Fabiyan didn’t got up at 5 o’clock this morning

(?)  Does Fabiyan got up at 5 o’clock this morning?

(-?) Didn’t (he) Fabiyan got up at 5 o’clock this morning

 

Keterangan waktu :

This morning, yesterday, last …(week, month, year etc), the day before yesterday, a few minute ago etc.

 

Past Continuous

Di gunakan untuk mengatakan aktifitas yang sedang dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan aktifitas lain menyusul.

I + am + v ing

We / you / they + are + V ing

He / She / It + is + V ing

Contoh :

(+)  Fabiyan was studying English all day yesterday

(-)   Fabiyan was not studying English now all day yesterday

(?)  was Fabiyan studying English all day yesterday ?

(-?) wasn’t Fabiyan studying English all day yesterday

Keterangan waktu :

All day yesterday, as, today, while, when, the whole day last week etc.


 

Baca juga :  Gerund

 

Past Perfect

Di pakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan, aktifitas atau kejadian  yang telah selesai sebelum suatu perbuatan lain terjadi dimasa lampau.

I / we / you / They have + V3 (past participle)

He / She / It + has + V3 (past participle)

Contoh :

(+)  He had read the email

(-)   He had not read the email

(?)   Had he read the email ?

(-?)  Hadn’t he read the email

Keterangan waktu :

By the end of, before, after, as soon as, until etc.


 

 

Past Perfect Continuous

Dipakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang berlangsung terus di waktu lampau sebelum kegiatan lain menyusul.

I / we / you / they had + been + verb + ing

He / she / it had + been + verb + ing

Contoh :

(+)  He had been reading the email

(-)   He had not (hasn’t) been reading the email

(?)  Had he been reading the email?

(-?) Hadn’t he been reading the email

Keterangan waktu :

When


 

 

Simple Future

Digunakan untuk menyatakan aktifitas atau kegiatan yang akan dilakukan pada waktu yang akan datang.

I / we + shall + verb

He / She / it + will + verb

Tetapi dalam percakapan sehari hari “shall” sudah jarang digunakan dan digantikan “will”, dan shall lebih sering digunakan dalam kalimat tertentu, seperti negatif dan interogatif.

(+)  Fabiyan will send the email tomorrow

(-)   Fabiyan will not (won’t) send the email tomorrow

(?)  will Fabiyan send the email tomorrow

(-?) won’t Fabiyan (he) read the email tomorrow


 

Future Continuous

Di gunakan untuk mengatakan aktifitas yang akan sedang terjadi di masa yang akan datang

I / we + shall + be + verb-ing

He / She / it + will + be + verb-ing

(+)  Fabiyan will be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning

(-)   Fabiyan will not (won’t) be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning

(?)  will Fabiyan be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning ?

(-?) won’t Fabiyan (he) be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning

 

Baca juga :  Relative Pronoun

Keterangan waktu :

At this time tomorrow, at 10 o’clock tomorrow, at the same time next week, etc.


 

 

 

Future Perfect

Dipakai untuk mengatakan aktifitas yang sudah dimulai di waktu lampau dan segera selesai di waktu yang akan datang.

I / we + shall + have + verb3 (P)

He / She / it + will + have + verb3 (P)

(+)  Fabiyan will be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning

(-)   Fabiyan will not (won’t) be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning

(?)  will Fabiyan be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning ?

(-?) won’t Fabiyan (he) be meeting at nine o’clock tomorrow morning

 

Keterangan Waktu :

By the end of, before, by next, by now, after, as soon as, until, etc.


 

Future Perfect Continuous

Hampir sama dengan Future Perfect tetapi perbuatan itu ada kemungkinan dilanjutkan di waktu yang akan datang.

I / we + shall + have + been + verb + ing

He / She / it + will + have + verb + ing

(+)  Fabiyan will have been meeting by the end of this year

(-)   Fabiyan will not (won’t) have been  meeting by the end of this year

(?)  will Fabiyan have been meeting by the end of this year ?

(-?) won’t Fabiyan (he) have been meeting by the end of this year


 

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